Thursday, December 12, 2019

The Logical Technique and Methodology used in the Project Management

Question: Discuss the logical technique and methodology used in the project management. Answer: Introduction The logical technique and methodology used in the project management helps to control the schedule, task and budget of a project. It is a reflection of project managers capabilities of handling projects and its related programs in a systematic way. It is the sole responsibility of the project managers to apply their skills and knowledge in the project activities to meet up the project requirements. However, it is not considered as profession as every project has some certain time of period and after its completion, it has no value to extend. Moreover that project managers of one domain will not be able to handle projects of other fields if proper knowledge is not gained. However, after all its limitations most of the large enterprises as well as small organizations take this technique and deploy it into the business operations like manufacturing, construction and servicing. Implementation of this project management as a profession as have some significant impacts such as time reduction, cost reduction, resources allocation and increased quality of products and services. An argumentative review will be set to see the worthiness of project management as a profession in business organization. The benefits of managers as well as organizers from this project management technique will be evaluated to gain the best result from it. Standing on this point of view, this work has put a light on whether it is worthwhile for project manager if project management is considered as a recognised profession. Discussion As discussed by Cavanagh (2013), a profession is essentially an occupation achieved through years of rigorous educational and vocational training procedure: the very purpose of the training being making the professionals acquainted with the practices essential for providing disinterested service to others. Researchers Hodgson (2005) on the other hand are of the opinion that a profession must have certain characteristics associated with: the characteristics being a significant history of serving the public, a body of knowledge and predefined level of occupational knowledge. Along with the above mentioned characteristics, authors Antoniades and Algeo (2012) consider the existence of a licensing procedure, the right to work independently, a certain control over the actions of the colleague and a well defined code of ethics are some of the most essential characteristics of a profession. In stark contrast to the information revealed in the section above, project managers associated with organizational projects do not undergo any educational training regarding the application of PM approach. Semantic and Historical perspective The profession concept It has seen that the concept of professional is based on project management, which is perspective of Historical and semantic. Subsequently, it can be eluded to the "practice" of solution, suggesting that the securing of learning and abilities is endless. In like manner of significance is Socrates sees on double dealing that 'self double dealing is the most exceedingly awful of all duplicities'. As the paper planned to investigate the professionalization of venture administration, the immediate question is whether, as professionals individual project managers are deluding them in making guarantees that venture administration is a calling. A few of Plato's methods of insight additionally have importance to this examination. 'Learning gotten under impulse gets no hang on the brain' gets to be imperative when an individual consider venture administration being known as the 'unintentional calling'. Plato moreover counsels doctors to 'put the benefit of their patients above profiting', which right up 'til the present time shapes one of the centre "properties" of a calling, in any event in the conventional sense (Kliem 2012). Another citation by Plato incorporates: 'the object of information is what exists and its capacity to think about reality'. This focuses out two imperative contemplations, which should be consolidated into research: The important differentiator between the expert professional and the minister lies in the wellspring of the basic learning. While the minister depends on a confidence in confidence, the genuine expert depends on learning substantiated by certainty and perceptions. Ultimately, the best way to demonstrate a specialist was equipped at the time was based on his outcomes. Is it true that this is not precisely the state we discover venture administration today? (Hodgson, 2005) These societies started as gatherings of labourers capable in playing out specific aptitudes or artworks. As they turned out to be more sorted out and understood that not everybody in the group was fit for playing out these vital administrations, they turned out to be all the more intense, in the end testing the lord (Morris et al. 2006). Once allowed this power, the societies controlled two essential components: Who and what number of disciples were acknowledged and prepared (control over the mystery strategies, formulae and abilities) Who could possess the instruments, workshops and different method for generation? Project Management form the Organizations Point Of View According to Partlett (1985), project management as a function can serve several benefits to all the people involved in it; the project managers, the production topic and the customers who eagerly wait for the output product. Pinto and Kharbanda (1995) mentioned that project managers are the key people in large industries like construction, architecture, engineering and in high tech fields. By applying the plans and principles of project management projects managers become able to manage large projects at times and can deliver the high quality products to the customers. Due to all these factors project managers are the highest valued persons almost in all the sectors. Society (2008) mentioned that in order to implement project management tools and techniques managers has to guide a large team, which helps to strengthen up the internal as well as external business relationships for the betterment of the organizations. Choosing project management as a profession can help to set and ach ieve organizational goals with greater success. Tavani (2007) has highlighted a major point that inn this growing competitive world almost all the organizations facing challenges related to the product and service quality. This is the major factor of customer dissatisfaction and can badly affect the organizational brand image. In this aspect project, management helps the organizations greatly to reduce risks by cutting the costs and by improving the success rates. Zwerman et al (2004) mentioned that implementation of project management across the industries helps to create the strategic value chain that not only helps to deliver the projects within a reasonable budget. Project management as an individual profession helps to keep the project on right track so that organizations are able to align their business goals with the project needs and requirements. According to McDougall (2013), project management provides greater flexibility for the organizations which help to mapping out the organizational strategies so that best outcome can be obtained with greater customer satisfaction. Alignment between organization and project management profession helps to enhance the business outcomes with better project results. Turner and Trone (2012) acknowledged that positive influences of project management profession enhance the organizations creative capacity and innovative thinking. Ackoff (1998) has observed that in industries especially in IT fields it is very necessary to revisit the work filed continuously to see the execution and approaches of the project work. An organization within project management environment helps to ensure the fact that right work is going by the right people in right sequence. It has been observed that due to lack of poor planning, poor management of the schedule and lack of understanding in the requirements are the major reasons of project failures in the organizations. Brydon-Miller (2009) stated that deployment of project management as function inside the business organization contributes to understand these requirements through a communication with the external world; as a result rework amount can be minimized or avoided at larger extent. As the customers requirements are changing daily, the formal integrated plans and processes of project management approach helps the project managers to manage and meet up the changed requirements. Cameron and Allen (2013) opined that project management profession not only needs the leadership skill but also includes the technical and soft skills. In this aspect Chandler and Torbert (2003) mentioned that is the project management profession will not be able to appoint skilled person for executing the project work, project can be failed and can create larger misbalance in the organizational financial structure. Moreover that small companies will not be able to bear the cost overhead of the project, which comprises of appointing project managers, training and many other things. With the engagement of new project management team, a new communication layer is added in the fray; as a result all the crucial information are jumbled up which are very critical for the organization rearrange. Coghian (2001) opined that as there is no direct connection between the project head and the team members time overhead is another greatest concern for the organizations. Due to lack of skills and e xpertise project managers are unable to calculate the accurate time needed for the complete project execution. TherefreEstay-Niculcar and Pastor-Collado (2002) says that, organizations effectively discovered the benefits of applying project management strategies to increase business value and ultimately gain profit from business. Heron and Reason (2008) argued that companies feel the need of strict management metrics in order to keep the project on track and adequately meet the project goals and objectives. The project management metrics and strategies are therefore, essential to plan the outcomes and deliverables of a particular project so as to ensure positive impact that results in ultimate progress. According to O'Leary (2007), a company will never launch a project unless the business units are assured of a suitable and efficient ongoing project management plan (PMP). Furthermore, change in any organization is inevitable; and project management provides the efficient approach to deal and successful manage those changes. Parker (2013) observed that, there is 97% impact of project management on business performance and the final success of the organization. On the same note, 95% of the organizations rely on project management to enable and ensure business growth. Miller (2014) argues that without a proper strategic planning enabled by project management, it is not possible for large scale organizations to focus on performance metrics, standardization of business processes and information flow for delivering better results. The enterprise wide benefits are common to all organizations operating on different industry sectors. Project Management from the Project Managers Point of View Project management as a profession helps in managing any critical large scale or small-scale projects and that is why leading organizations across the globe dealing in different sectors of business and industries consider project management as an essential element for the only way to control a difficult project in an efficient manner and ultimately improve the project results and outcomes. According to Turner and Trone (2012), project management executives find it adequately necessary to adhere to the PMP (project management professional) methods and strategies to be able to successfully deal with the potential risks, handle project costs and enhance rate of success for surviving the economic crisis. Kenny (2013) stated that, choosing project management as a career inevitably helps a project manager in gaining invaluable lessons on the particular business and well as acquire in-depth knowledge about the wide range and variety of aspects that a specific project possesses. On the other hand, Zwerman et al. (2004) agrees that project management essentially provides a unique and huge opportunity to project managers in learning every aspects of the business. Project managers make crucial and important decisions as they move up the career ladder (Cameron and Allen 2013). Large organizations usually deal with more complex internal processes and procedures. As a result, they require efficient and expert project managers who have enough knowledge and proficiency about all the aspects of PMP such as customer service, marketing, policy, information technology (IT), product management, legal matters, operational and functional aspects and so on. Tavani (2007) argued that good project managers are valuable to every organization because they essentially stop as from spending large sum of money on projects that are bound to fail. In addition to that, according to PMI research survey results, project management as a profession is necessarily one of the fastest growing careers all across the globe, which naturally ensures that project managers are highly valued in every sectors of the industry (Shepherd and Atkinson 2011). The President and CEO of Project Management Institute (PMI), Mr. Langley said that military veterans that are transitioning into the civilian workforce will eventually find it as their ideal career, mostly because their skills can be directly transferred to the project management profession (Chandler and Torbert 2003). For instance, strategic leadership skill, technical skills as well as soft skills are all the key competencies of military veterans, which are also essential for proficient project managers to po ssess. Apparently, the PMP citification has become a widely popular program for future project managers to successfully learn and acquire deep understanding over the crucial aspects and areas of a project (Estay-Niculcar and Pastor-Collado 2002). Therefore, project managers find this profession beneficial as with passing days this career is gaining more and more demand in the market or rather, in different kinds of business. Reynolds (2003) says that it is next to impossible to deliver a successful project without a specific program and project management knowledge discipline. He adds that, project managers essentially possess the skills to undertake a clear approach, establish decision points and clear milestones and metrics for measuring the overall success and performance. On the contrary, Kerzner (2001) stated that the typical role of a project manager is to schedule meetings, take notes and track action items. However, Pinto and Kharbanda (1995) contradicts to his statement saying that, a project managers responsibility is beyond just that. A project manager is typically responsible for leading the project to accomplish successful execution of the project. Chris Vandersluis (2012) has seen that there are some difficulties in project management that has everything related with perspective. We hardly concentrate on the point that from which the project managers create their point of view as they live inside it. In the world of project management, the ability to identify a perspective as a perspective is a critical skill (Ackoff 1998). In any task, scope and schedule are sometimes identified by the less amount of description. Five or four words in a schedule plan may be everything written descriptive as project scope that the project has. There are no issues if everyone can understand the same thing by those limited words but it is common (Watt 2008). The project manager has a very crucial role in the organization for the success of a project that is undertaken. The project manager is the link between the people who will contribute in the implementation of the project and the people who will be benefited from the developed project (Brydon -Miller 2009). Therefore, the project manager has to think about the point of views of each stakeholder in the project development. In addition, there are some issues with the project management as a profession. Since the project manager have to deal with the corporate world, which causes the project manager to deal with the unstable goals and changes in the scope of the project (McDougall 2013). The undefined or the unstable goals can cause the failure of the project. The clients and the stakeholders may ask for the changes in a developed project that causes for the reengineer the project by the PM. More over the project manager have to develop a project with the help of a team (Langford 1995). Therefore, the success of the project manager has to deal with the inadequate skills of the team members. This also causes for the lack of the accountability of the project manager in the organization. Therefore the different and unique perspectives causes for a halt in the development of the project. It takes a lot of time to resolve the conflicts between the different parties. As far as the organization and the project manager acknowledge their respective perspectives, the profession of the project manager cannot be recognized or appreciated. Conclusion The document itself describes various aspects of project management with respect to project manager and organizational point of view. From the study, it can be understood that the project management has different advantages and disadvantage from both the mentioned aspects. When an individual project manager consider project management from organization point of view it can be argued that the organization has made their way into project management as a way to handling or control the expenditure and enhance the project results and at the time of recession project management becomes more critical and important for any organization. It has also been understood that a good project management learning stop the organization from spending cash or money on the tasks or projects that will surely fail. So that is an advantage for any organization those who have already obtained project management inside them. However, it can also be understood that there are some disadvantages or flaws in proje ct management but individual needs to consider it as an advantage. There are certain limitations in project management, which it is unable to stick with the project scope. The project manager point of view with respect to project management discuss that how project management as a profession is helping them in managing the project as well as help them personally to move up in their career ladder. The project management provides them the right tools to help them evaluate, monitor and control the project from start to end. Moreover, there are various disadvantages as well when we consider project management for project managers. The point is simple that everything will be inside a proper boundary for the project to get success. The overall report describes the support and against project management as a professional in the organization as well as project managers presenting their point of views about the project management. There are different author perspectives, which have been mentioned in the report while the discussions were presented. References: Ackoff, R.L. 1998, ' A Systemic View of Transformational Leadership', Systemic Practice and Action Research, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 23-36. Antoniades, H. and Algeo, C. 2012, 'A Comparative Analysis of Continuing Professional Development for Professionals within the Built Environment', 4th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (EDULEARN12) Conference, Barcelona, Spain. Brydon-Miller, M. 2009, 'Covenantal Ethics and Action Research: Exploring a common foundation for social research', in D.M. Mertens and P.E. Ginsberg (eds), The Handbook of Social Research Ethics, SAGE, Newbury Park, CA, pp. 243-58. Cameron, L. and Allen, B. 2013, 'Achieving Educational Sustainability: A PALAR reflection of success', Action Learning Action Research Journal, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 135-62. Chandler, D. and Torbert, B. 2003, 'Transforming Inquiry and Action: Interweaving 27 Flavors of Action Research ', Action Research, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 133-52. Coghian, D. 2001, 'Insider Action Research Projects: Implications for Practising Managers', Management Learning, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 49-60 Dalcher, D. 2013, 'Professionalism, Ethics and the Freedom to ask the Right Questions', PM World Journal, vol. II, no. IV pp. 1-3. Estay-Niculcar, C.A. and Pastor-Collado, J.A. 2002, 'A Maturity Model for Information Systems Action-Research Project Management', paper presented to the European Conference on Information Systems, Heron, J. and Reason, P. 2008, 'Extending Epistemology within a Co-operative Inquiry', in P. Reason and H. Bradbury (eds), Handbook of Action Research, Second edition edn, SAGE, London, UK. 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Parker, M. 2013, 'Practitioner Reflection Growing our Knowledge, Improving our Practice - Reflecting on how doing participatory action research over a period of time shifts the way you understand and do the work', Action Learning Action Research Journal, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 163-75. Partlett, D.F. 1985, Professional Negligence, The Law Book Company, Sydney, NSW. Pinto, J.K. and Kharbanda, O.P. 1995, 'Lessons for an Accidental Profession', Business Horizons, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 41-50. Society, T.L. 2008, Royal Charter and Supplemental Charters. Tavani, H.T. 2007, Ethics and Technology: Ethical Issues in an Age of Information and Communication Technology, John Wiley, Hoboken, N.J. Turner, C. and Trone, J. 2012, Australian Commercial Law, 29th edn, Thompson Reuters, Sydney, Australia. Zwerman, W.L., Zwerman, B.L., Thomas, J. and Williams, T.A. 2004, Professionalization of Project Management: Exploring the past to map the future, Project Management Institute.

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